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A. Atlas fractures (C1)
Jefferson fractures with ligamentous avulsions, and resulting lateral dislocation of C1 in relation to
C2 require surgery urgently. The surgical options available are:
1. Harms transoral repositioning and osteosynthesis of C1
2. C0/C2 fusion
B. Atlantooccipital dislocation (C0/C1)
1. Transoral C0/C1 fusion
2. Dorsal C0/C1 fusion
3. C0/C1/C2 fusion as needed
C. Axis fracture C2)
C1. Type I fractures with ligamenta alaria avulsions
1. fusion operation
C2. Type II fractures
1. Classic surgical treatment with ventral screws using the Böhler method
2. Osteosynthesis of C1/C2 with or without fusion
C3. Type III fractures
1. Surgical repositioning with C1/C2 instrumentation using the Harms technique.
D. Atlantoaxial dislocation (C1/C2)
1. dorsal repositioning and instrumentation C1/C2, in most cases with a definitive fusion
E. Traumatic spondylolysis (C2), "hangman´s fracture"
1. direct C2 screw fixation using the Judet method