A "tumor" or "cancer" diagnosis represents a major setback in a patient's personal and social life. Recent decades have seen significant progress in treatment of tumor diseases, though radical spine surgery is subject to certain limitations. Despite the large number of surgical options available and adequate supporting therapy, not every case is curable. The various approaches now available to tumor surgery, supplemented by differentiated chemotherapy or radiotherapy, can help improve an individual’s quality of life in cases of vertebral instability due to tumor growth or in cases involving a risk of spinal cord compression with possible transverse lesion paralysis.